Writing assignments After completing the reading, answer the question or questions. Use a word processor (like MS Word) to write your 300-400 word response. Once you have completed the assignment, save a copy for yourself in an easily accessible place, and submit a copy to the writing assignment inbox. Do not upload a separate attachment. I will evaluate assignments for the following:a. Use of proper grammar, syntaxes and spelling.b. Don’t just repeat what is on the book. Plagiarized posts (words copied from the web or print material) will result in failing the [url removed, login to view] assignments are your opportunity to let me know your own interpretation of the reading and subject matter. What was the chapter about? Are you surprised by something that you learned here? Does it change the way you think about our world and its past? Read and compare the excerpt from Ernesto 'Che" Guevara'sGuerrilla Warfare and John F. Kennedy's speech Alliance for ProgressQuestions:1. How do you think the social and political conditions in Latin America contributed to the proliferation of guerrillas?2. What kind of revolution is Kennedy advocating? How is his idea of revolution different from Che’s idea?3. Why did Kennedy call upon the peasant, the student and the workers in his speech? What was the social and political role of these groups in Latin America?4. In the long term, do you think either Che or Kennedy succeeded in launching their revolutions? Why?Excerpt from Guerrilla Warfare by Ernesto “Che” GuevaraThe publication of Guerrilla Warfare in 1960 marked a dramatic moment in Latin American history and in U.S.-Latin American relations. In this landmark book the author, Ernesto “Che” Guevara, declared war against the incumbent regimes throughout Latin America and against U.S. imperialism. Che proclaimed for all to hear that through guerrilla warfare the dictatorships of Central America and the Caribbean would be destroyed and that Cuba would be a vanguard force in the war for [url removed, login to view] immediately the new Cuban revolutionary government that rose to power in January 1959 began to provide training and small amounts of military assistance to would-be insurrectionist in the Western Hemisphere. Che Guevara took personal control and participated actively in the Cuban efforts to inspire “new Cubas” in Latin America. In response, the United States and most Latin American governments created a vast military counterinsurgency apparatus to destroy the nascent guerrilla organizations and established an “Alliance for Progress” to undermine support for revolutionary movements in the region. Chapter 1. General Principles of Guerrilla Warfare1. Essence of Guerrilla WarfareThe armed victory of the Cuban people over the Batista dictatorship was not only the triumph of heroism as reported by the newspapers of the world; it also forced a change in the old dogmas concerning the conduct of the popular masses of Latin America. It showed plainly the capacity of the people to free themselves by means of guerrilla warfare from a government that oppresses them. We consider that the Cuban Revolution contributed three fundamental lessons to the conduct of revolutionary movements in America. They are: 1. Popular forces can win war against the army.2. It is not necessary to wait until all conditions for making revolution exist: the insurrection can create them. 3. In underdeveloped America the countryside is the basic area for armed [url removed, login to view] these three propositions the first two contradict the defeatist attitude of revolutionaries or pseudo-revolutionaries who remain inactive and take refuge in the pretext that against a professional army nothing can be done, who sit down to wait until in some mechanical way all necessary objective and subjective conditions are given without working to accelerate them. As these problems were formerly a subject to discussion in Cuba, until facts settled the question, they are probably still much discussed in [url removed, login to view], it is not to be thought that all conditions for the revolution are going to be created through the impulse given to them by the guerrilla activity. It must always be kept in mind that there is a necessary minimum without which the establishment and consolidation of the first center is not practicable. People must see clearly the futility of maintaining the fight for social goals within the framework of civil debate. When the forces of oppression come to maintain themselves in power against established law, peace is considered already [url removed, login to view] these conditions popular discontent expresses itself in more active forms. An attitude of resistance finally crystallizes in an outbreak of fighting, provoked initially by the conduct of the [url removed, login to view] a government has come into power through some form of popular vote, fraudulent or not, and maintains at least an appearance of constitutional legality, the guerrilla outbreak cannot be promoted, since the possibilities of peaceful struggle have not yet been [url removed, login to view] third position is a fundamental of strategy. It ought to be noted by those who maintain dogmatically that the struggle of the masses is centered in city movements, entirely forgetting the immense participation of the country people in the life of all the underdeveloped parts of America. Of course the struggles of the city masses of organized workers should not be underrated; but their real possibilities of engaging in armed struggle must be carefully analyzed where the guarantees which customarily adorn our institutions are suspended or ignored. In these conditions the illegal workers’ movements face enormous dangers. They must function secretly without arms. The situation in open country is not so difficult. There, in places beyond the reach of the repressive forces, the inhabitants can be supported by the armed guerrillas. We will later make careful analysis of these three conclusions that stand out in the Cuban revolutionary experience. We emphasize them now at the beginning of this work as our fundamental [url removed, login to view] warfare, the basis of the struggle of a people to redeem itself, has diverse characteristics, different facets, even though the essential will for liberation remains the same. It is obvious -and writers on the theme have said it many times- that war responds to a certain series of scientific laws; whoever ignores them will go down to defeat. Guerrilla warfare as a phase of war must be ruled by all of these; but besides, because of its special aspects, a series of corollary laws must also be recognized in order to carry it forward. Though geographical and social conditions in each country determine the mode and particular forms that guerrilla warfare will take, there are general laws that hold for all fighting of this [url removed, login to view] task at the moment is to find the basic principles of this kind of fighting and the rules to be followed by peoples seeking liberation; to develop theory from facts; to generalize and give structure to our experience for the profit of [url removed, login to view] us first consider the question: who are the combatants in guerrilla warfare? On one side we have a group composed of the oppressor and his agents, the professional army, well armed and disciplined, in many cases receiving foreign help as well as the help of the bureaucracy in the employ of the oppressor. On the other side are people of the nation or region involved. It is important to emphasize that guerrilla warfare is the war of the masses, war of the people. The guerrilla band is an armed nucleus, the fighting vanguard of the people. It draws its great force from the mass of the people themselves. The guerrilla band is not to be considered inferior to the army against which it fights simply because it is inferior in fire power. Guerrilla warfare is used by the side which is supported by a majority but which possesses a much smaller number of arms for the use in defense against [url removed, login to view] guerrilla fighter needs full help from the people of the area. This is an indispensable condition. This clearly seen by considering the case of bandit gangs that operate in a region. They have all the characteristics of a guerrilla army, homogeneity, respect for the leader, valor, knowledge of the ground, and often even good understanding of the tactics to be employed. The only thing missing is support of the people; and inevitably, these gangs are captured and exterminated by public force. Analyzing the mode of operation of the guerrilla band, seeing its form of struggle and understanding its base in the masses, we can answer the question: why does the guerrilla fighter fight? We must come to the inevitable conclusion that the guerrilla fighter is a social reformer, that he takes up arms responding to the angry protest of the people against their oppressor, and that he fights in order to change the social system that keeps all his unarmed brothers in ignominy and misery. He launches himself against the conditions of the reigning institutions at a particular moment and dedicates himself with all the vigor that circumstances permit to breaking the mold of these [url removed, login to view] we analyze more fully the tactic of guerrilla warfare, we will see that the guerrilla fighter needs to have a good knowledge of the surrounding countryside, the paths of entry and escape, the possibilities of speedy maneuver, good hiding places; naturally also, he must count on the support of the people. All this indicates that the guerrilla fighter will carry out his action in wild places of small population. Since in these places the struggle of the people for reforms is aimed primarily and almost exclusively at changing the social form of land ownership, the guerrilla fighter is above all an agrarian revolutionary. He interprets the desires of the great peasant mass to be owners of their means of production, of their animals, of all that which they have long yearned to call their own, of that which constitutes their life and will also serve as their [url removed, login to view] should be noted that in current interpretations there are two different types of guerrilla warfare, one which –a struggle complementing great regular armies such as was the case of the Ukrainian fighters in the Soviet Union- does not enter into this analysis. We are interested in the other type, the case of an armed group engaged in struggle against the constituted power, whether colonial or not, which establishes itself as the only base and which builds itself up in rural areas. In all such cases, whatever the ideological aims that may inspire the fight, the economic aim is determined by the aspiration toward ownership of [url removed, login to view] John F. Kennedy: On the Alliance for Progress, 1961 President Kennedy initiated the Alliance for Progress with great fanfare in August of 1961 -what you are reading here is a speech to the Organization of American States before the formal launch of this program- at the Punta del Este Conference in Uruguay. In theory, the Alliance for Progress was a ten year commitment of twenty billion dollars in public and private U.S. funds for economic and social development in Latin America that would be accompanied by internal reforms (land, tax, and electoral reforms; housing and educational programs; public works, etc) throughout the region. In short, the Alliance for Progress was a U.S. response to the Cuban revolution and the threat posed by Guerrilla Warfare. The U.S. recognized the accuracy of Che Guevara’s observation on the objective conditions of misery, poverty, and oppression that made all of Latin America vulnerable to revolutionary warfare. To alleviate these conditions, at least enough to buy time for incumbent regimes and allow defeat of the guerrilla movements, the U.S. government intended to promote social and economic reform. The Alliance for Progress would be a prophylactic; it would allow for “progress” (reform) –or the perception of “progress” – by stifling the idea that a new society must be based upon revolutionary change. Address by President Kennedy at a White House Reception for Latin American Diplomats and Members of Congress, March 13, 1961…We meet together as firm and ancient friends, united by history and experience and by our determination to advance the values of American civilization. For this new world of ours is not merely an accident of geography. Our continents arc bound together by a common history-the endless exploration of new frontiers. Our nations are the product of a common struggle -the revolt from colonial rule. And our people share a common heritage - the quest for the dignity and the freedom of man. . . As a citizen of the United States let me be the first to admit that we North Americans have not always grasped the significance of this common mission, just as it is also true that many in your own countries have not fully understood the urgency of the need to lift people from poverty and ignorance and despair. But we must turn from these mistakes-from the failures and the misunderstandings of the past to a future full of peril but bright with [url removed, login to view] Latin America a continent rich in resources and in the spiritual and cultural achievements of its people millions of men and women suffer the daily degradations of hunger and poverty. They lack decent shelter or protection from disease. Their children are deprived of the education or the jobs which arc the gateway to a better life…If we are to meet a problem so staggering in its dimensions, our approach must itself be equally bold, an approach consistent with the majestic concept of Operation Pan America. Therefore I have called on all the people of the hemisphere to join in a new Alliance for Progress - Alianza para el Progreso - a vast cooperative effort, unparalleled in magnitude and nobility of purpose, to satisfy the basic needs of the American people for homes, work and land, health and schools - techo, trabajo y tierra, salud y [url removed, login to view], I propose that the American Republics begin on a vast new 10-year plan for the Americas, a plan to transform the 1960's into an historic decade of democratic progress...And if we are successful, if our effort is bold enough and determined enough, then the close of this decade will mark the beginning of a new era in the American experience. The living standards of every American family will be on the rise, basic education will be available to all, hunger will be a forgotten experience, the need for massive outside help will have passed, most nations will have entered a period of self-sustaining growth, and, although there will be still much to do, every American Republic will be the master of its own revolution and its own hope and [url removed, login to view] me stress that only the most determined efforts of the American nations themselves can bring success to this effort. They, and they alone, can mobilize their resources, enlist the energies of their people, and modify their social patterns so that all, and not just a privileged few, share in the fruits of growth. If this effort is made, then outside assistance will give a vital impetus to progress; without it, no amount of help will advance the welfare of the people. . . Secondly, I will shortly request a ministerial meeting of the Inter-American Economic and Social Council, a meeting at which we can begin the massive planning effort which will be at the heart of the Alliance for [url removed, login to view] if our alliance is to succeed, each Latin nation must formulate long-range plans for its own development-plans which establish targets and priorities, insure monetary stability, establish the machinery for vital social change, stimulate private activity and initiative, and provide for a maximum national effort. . . .Third, I have this evening signed a request to the Congress for $500 million as a first step in fulfilling the Act of Bogota. . . . The money will be used to combat illiteracy, improve the productivity and use of their land, wipe out disease, attack archaic tax and land-tenure structures, provide educational opportunities, and offer a broad range of projects designed to make the benefits of increasing abundance available to all. We will begin to commit these funds as soon as they are [url removed, login to view], we must support all economic integration which is a genuine step toward larger markets and greater competitive opportunity. The fragmentation of Latin American economies is a serious barrier to industrial growth. . . .Fifth, the United States is ready to cooperate in serious, case-by-case examinations of commodity market problems. Frequent violent changes in commodity prices seriously injure the economies of many Latin American countries, draining their resources and stultifying their growth. Together we must find practical methods of bringing an end to this [url removed, login to view], we will immediately step up our food –for peace emergency program, help to establish food reserves in areas of recurrent drought, and help provide school lunches for children and offer feed grains for use in rural development. For hungry men and women cannot wait for economic discussions or diplomatic meetings; their need is urgent, and their hunger rests heavily on the conscience of their fellow [url removed, login to view], all the people of the hemisphere must be allowed to share in the expanding wonders of science-wonders which have captured man's imagination, challenged the powers of his mind, and given him the tools for rapid progress. I invite Latin American scientists to work with us in new projects in fields such as medicine and -agriculture, physics and astronomy and desalinization, and to help plan for regional research laboratories in these and other fields, and to strengthen cooperation between American universities and laboratories. . . .Eighth, we must rapidly expand the training of those needed to man the economies of rapidly developing countries. This means expanded technical training programs, for which the Peace Corps, for example, will be available where needed. It also means assistance to Latin American universities, graduate schools, and research [url removed, login to view] welcome proposals in Central America for intimate cooperation in higher education, cooperation which can achieve a regional effort of increased effectiveness and excellence. We are ready to help fill the gap in trained manpower, realizing that our ultimate goal must be a basic education for all who wish to [url removed, login to view], we reaffirm our pledge to come to the defense of any American nation whose independence is endangered. As confidence in the collective security system of the OAS [Organization of American States] spreads, it will be possible to devote to constructive use a major share of those resources now spent on the instruments of war. Even now, as the Government of Chile has said, the time has come to take the first steps toward sensible limitations of arms. And the new generation of military leaders has shown an increasing awareness that armies can not only defend their countries-they can, as we have learned through our own Corps of Engineers, help to build [url removed, login to view], we invite our friends in Latin America to contribute to the enrichment of life and culture in the United States. We need teachers of your literature and history and tradition, opportunities for our young people to study in your universities, access to your music, your art, and the thought of your great philosophers. For we know we have much to [url removed, login to view] this way you can help bring a fuller spiritual and intellectual life to the people of the United States and contribute to understanding and mutual respect among the nations of the [url removed, login to view] steps such as these we propose to complete the revolution of the Americas, to build a hemisphere where all men can hope for a suitable standard of living and all can live out their lives in dignity and in [url removed, login to view] achieve this goal political freedom must accompany material progress. Our Alliance for Progress is an alliance of free governments-and it must work to eliminate tyranny from a hemisphere in which it has no rightful place. Therefore let us express our special friendship to the people of Cuba and the Dominican Republic-and the hope they will soon rejoin the society of free men, uniting with us in our common [url removed, login to view] political freedom must be accompanied by social change. For unless necessary social reforms, including land and tax reform, are freely made, unless we broaden the opportunity of all of our people, unless the great mass of Americans share in increasing prosperity, then our alliance, our revolution, our dream, and our freedom will fail. But we call for social change by free men-change in the spirit of Washington and Jefferson, of Bolivar and San Martin and Marti -not change which seeks to impose on men tyrannies which we cast out a century and a half ago. Our motto is what it has always been-progress yes, tyranny no - Progreso si, tirania no!But our greatest challenge comes from within the task of creating an American civilization where spiritual and cultural values are strengthened by an ever-broadening base of material advance, where, within the rich diversity of its own traditions, each nation is free to follow its own path toward [url removed, login to view] completion of our task will, of course, require the efforts of all the governments of our hemisphere. But the efforts of governments alone will never be enough. In the end the people must choose and the people must help [url removed, login to view] so I say to the men and women of the Americas - to the [peasant] in the fields, to the obrero [worker] in the cities, to the estudiante in the schools - prepare your mind and heart for the task ahead, call forth your strength, and let each devote his energies to the betterment of all so that your children and our children in this hemisphere can find an ever richer and a freer [url removed, login to view] us once again transform the American Continent into a vast crucible of revolutionary ideas and efforts, a tribute to the power of the creative energies of free men and women, an example to all the world that liberty and progress walk hand in hand. Let us once again awaken our American revolution until it guides the struggles of people everywhere not with an imperialism of force or fear but the rule of courage and freedom and hope for the future of men.
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