Please see description of the requested assignment.
Total word count needed approx. 6000 in introduction, discussion and conclusion possibly with referencing.
Once quote agreed I shall provide players results which in that case reject both hypothesis described below.
**Keywords: Non-dominant hand, jump shot, motor skills, bilateral transfer **
Jump shot in basketball
Motor skill development & bilateral transfer
Improvement in non-dominant hand jump shooting after practice (H1)
Non-dominant hand jump shooting practice will initiate using this skill during basketball game (H2)
? pre-test n= 12 right and left handed competitive basketball players are asked to accomplish Hand-preference questionnaire
? age 18 >
? inclusion criteria, a minimum of 3 years of experience in playing competitive basketball games like collegiate level
? experimental group (n=6) and a control group (n=6)
?dependent variable: implemented technique to experimental group
? pre-test and post-test trials will be used to assess the differences between groups (H1)
? pre-test and post-test basketball games will take place and will be recorded using video camera (H2)
? video statistics obtained and analyzed using SportsCode software
**? SPSS 16.0 for Windows**
? significance will be accepted at P<0.05
? descriptive statistics will include means and standard deviations
? T-tests for paired samples will be used to evaluate differences between the groups
Expected results & discussion
? within 8 weeks of training all participants will have progressed in scoring jump shots using the non-dominant hand (H1)
? practicing a new motor skill, with time, builds up this specific trained ability (Oxendine 1969)
? experimented subjects could start to use non-dominant hand jump shooting skill during regular basketball games (H2)
? specific motor skill learning ability depends on early commencement and long duration of practice (Amunts et al 1997)
? there might be not enough practice time for our subjects to be able to expand of the size of the primary motor cortex in the brain (Hallett 2006)
? if non-dominant hand jump shooting skill could be considered as part of action planning in game of basketball (cognitive thinking & decision-making processes (Magill 1993; Schmidt 1988; Lee et al 1994 ))
**The jump shot:**
The *jump* *shot* is one of the most important basic skills in the game of basketball. In a properly executed jump shot, the player jumps into the air and shots the ball at the peak of the player's jump to avoid being blocked by defensive players. According to top world basketball league, NBA statistically shows that the jump shot approximately comes to two-third of all NBA field goal attempts. In basketball, jump shooting is recognized as the main skill to perform well therefore it is widely practised.
## Motor skill development & bilateral transfer:
The motor skill development of a particular ability of non-dominant limbs is related to previously learn and used skill by the dominant limbs and this is known as bilateral transfer (Magill 1993). Bilateral transfer is known also as cross education or the cross training effect (Lee & Caroll 2007). Training one limb improves motor skill acquisition in the opposite and untrained limb and bilateral transfer takes place from the preferred limb to the non-preferred limb and vice versa (Liu & Wrisberg 2005). Greer (1976) explains that individuals often favour to use one preferred limb when performing a bilateral motor skill, however the ability of performing with both limbs can become very beneficial for certain sport skills. Stallings (1982) gives examples including dribbling a soccer ball with either foot or shooting a basketball with either hand. Haaland & Hoff (2005), in their research about the non-dominant leg training in soccer, have no doubts that a high intense level of skill in using both feet improves the whole outcome for soccer motor performance and with emphasis to bilateral skill development of all limbs it is very important aspect of training in most of sports.
## Use of non-dominant hand jump shot:
There are many studies that consider cross training effect and bilateral skill development in many sports, which clearly indicates the importance of equal training for both dominant and non-dominant limbs.
However in basketball, so far, the specific implementation in non-dominant hand jump shooting simply does not yet exist. All levels of basketball coaches, especially in early stages of teaching children, put extra effort on training of the non-dominant hand, but only in addition to progress on other fields of basketball game including, passing, dribbling, shooting lay-ups or hooks. The practice of non-dominant hand jump shot is simply omitted. Many could disagree, believing that the jump shot must be practiced and executed only by stronger, preferred and the dominant hand to be able to achieve the excellence.
The most skilled and valuable players are these, who can equally use both hands in the game, however it is extremely unusual to find one, who would use his or her non-dominant hand in jump shooting. These could happen in very specific game situations against very intensive defenders or during shooting actions from specific field angles. The bilateral skill development of non-dominant hand jump shot in basketball is a key point of this research.
The first **hypothesis** is that increased use of non-dominant hand jump shot in training will improve general and non-dominant hand jump shot skills when using the non-dominant hand. The second hypothesis is that implementation of use the non-dominant hand jump shot in training will allow basketball players to learn this new specific motor skill and use it in regular basketball games.
12 male competitive basketball players will be used in this study. There are right and left-handed participants who are specialized in mid- and long-distance jump shooting. The study includes players over 18 years old, there are various height & weight ranges. The inclusion criteria are a minimum of 3 years of experience in playing competitive basketball games.
**dependent variable: implemented technique to experimental group**
A standard 10 minutes warm-up using different forms of running and shooting basketball will be used prior to the test. All participants in each group will be set into pairs with alike body size and skill levels. This design indicates two trials of use the dominant and non-dominant hand jump shooting under certain conditions. First, is set of individual jump shots without the opponent, when shooter gets all passes from his team mate who rebounds the ball. Second, is based on individual jump shooting within the opponent, his team mate who passes the ball then rapidly tries to block the shot and then rebounds the ball and so on. Rojas presents the importance for training jump shooting against opponent as a crucial indicator to success in performance. All players execute 10 jump shots with each hand, with and without the opponent from 5 different mid-range positions.
All subjects will be asked to adjust theirs dominant hand jump shooting technique to theirs non-dominant hand jump shooting technique based on theirs style and experience. They will have option of 10 shots to practice the non-dominant shooting hand prior to the test. Simply, reminder of shooting technique will be used as these participants already have developed and learnt the skill with their preferred hand. The coach as the data collector and researcher will be using a verbal feedback with experimental group.
The participants will be kept uninformed of the hypothesis and the reason of the training procedure. The single-blinded method will take place in this study.
The total period of this research will last for 8 weeks (one session per week)
#### Data Collection
The pre-test and post-test trials and basketball game will be used to assess the differences between groups. Video statistics for jump shooting and other shots scores will be obtained and analyzed using SportsCode software.
### Statistical analysis
A statistical analysis will be accepted using SPSS 16.0 for Windows. The descriptive statistics will include means and standard deviations. T-tests for paired samples will be used to evaluate differences between the groups.
**Expected results & discussion**
It is totally evident that practicing a new motor skill, with time, builds up this specific ability (Oxendine 1969). The assumption can be made that within 12 weeks of training all participants will have learnt the new motor skill and they will have progressed in scoring jump shots using the non-dominant hand. The second hypothesis indicates that experimented subjects could start to use this just new learnt motor skill during regular basketball games. However, according to Amunts et al (1997), the specific motor skill learning ability depends on early commencement and long duration of practice, which might conclude that all major motor skills learning should be implemented in first stages of children sport-specific development.
In this case, our subjects represent a mature, experience and competitive basketball players, who already went through all developmental stages without implementation of use the non-dominant hand jump shot in basketball training and game. Respectively, there might be not enough practice time for our subjects to be able to expand of the size of the primary motor cortex in the brain, which is the executor responsible for motor commands and motor learning in humans (Harlett 2006). The other aspect comes to the importance of cognitive thinking in motor learning and cognitive effort as the mental work involved in decision-making processes regarding the anticipation, planning, regulation and interpretation of motor movement in performance (Lee et al 1994). In this matter, will participants recognize the new learn non-dominant hand jump shooting skill as beneficial in game and consider it as part of action planning in game of basketball.
## **Halland & Haff (2003) Non-dominant leg training improves the bilateral motor performance of soccer players. Scandinavial Journal of Medecine and Science in Sport**
## ** **
## **Above is major paper and please follow its references**